This page contains links to various community resources and public documentation about risk-limiting audits.
These projects represent considerable work done by the election verification community, and we salute the contributors’ time and effort!
If you see something we’ve missed, please let us know via email.
Current Audit Laws
Best Practices & Implementation Guides
- Democracy Fund’s “Knowing It’s Right Part 1: A Practical Guide to Risk-Limiting Audits”
- Democracy Fund’s “Knowing It’s Right Part 2: Risk-Limiting Audit Implementation Workbook”
- Democracy Fund’s “Knowing It’s Right Part 3: Planning & Conducting a Risk-Limiting Pilot”
- Democracy Fund’s “Knowing It’s Right Part 4: Ballot Accounting Audits Best Practices Guide”
- Brennan Center’s “Post-election Audits: Restoring Trust in Elections”
- Election Assistance Commission’s “Chain of Custody Best Practices”
- Garland et al.’s “Principles and Best Practices for Post-Election Tabulation Audits”
- Lindeman & Stark’s “A Gentle Introduction to Risk-limiting Audits”
- The National Academies’ “Securing the Vote: Protecting American Democracy”
- Bernhard, M., 2021. Risk-Limiting Audits: A Practical Systematization of Knowledge.
- Shein, E. IFES Risk Limiting Audits: A Guide for Global Use
- Mark Lindeman’s “What’s an RLA? What Does a Good One Look Like, and Why Would I Care?” from the OSET blog
Documentation from Pilot RLAs
- Risk-Limiting Audit Recommendations for Connecticut
- California 2021-2022 Pilot Results
- Orange County, California’s Pilot Audit report (June, 2018)
- Fairfax City, Virginia’s Pilot Audit report (August, 2018)
- Rhode Island’s Pilot Audit report (August, 2019)
- Michigan’s Pilot Audit report (November, 2019)
- Pennsylvania’s Post-Election Audit Working Group Report on Risk Limiting Audits (September, 2022
Documentation from Full RLAs
- VotingWorks’ Audit Planner
- Philip Stark’s BRAVO Ballot Polling method demonstration website
- Philip Stark’s Ballot Comparison method demonstration website
- Kellie Ottoboni’s SUITE/hybrid method demonstration Jupyter notebook
- Neal McBurnett’s RLA sample size calculator
- Ron Rivest’s ElectionAuditWare on GitHub
- Colorado’s Risk-Limiting Audit software (CORLA) on GitHub
- VotingWorks’ Arlo RLA Tool on GitHub
Oversight, Transparency, & “Auditing the Audit”
Graphics, Visuals, Video, & Presentations
- Verified Voting’s video - Understanding Risk-Limiting Audits
- VotingWork’s video - Risk-Limiting Audit
- Verified Voting’s audit process graphic
- Verified Voting’s Differences Between RLA Methods
- Denver8TV’s 3-minute RLA explainer video
- Colorado SoS’s 30-minute RLA video
Archived conference presentations
Recent Academic Research
- Fuller, B., A. Harrison, A. Russell. Adaptive Risk-Limiting Comparison Audits.
- Glazer, A., J. Spertus, P.B. Stark. More Style, Less Work: Card-style Data Decrease Risk-limiting Audit Sample Sizes.
- Stark, P.B., 2020. Sets of Half-Average Nulls Generate Risk-Limiting Audits: SHANGRLA, Voting ’20.
- Bernhard, M., A. Halderman, K. Ottoboni, R.L. Rivest, and P.B. Stark, 2019. Bernoulli Ballot Polling: A Manifest Improvement for Risk-Limiting Audits, Voting ‘19 to appear.
- Ottoboni, K., P.B. Stark, M. Lindeman, and N. McBurnett, 2018. Risk-Limiting Audits by Stratified Union-Intersection Tests of Elections (SUITE), to appear in Electronic Voting. E-Vote-ID 2018. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer.
Ranked Choice Voting RLA Research
- Blom, M., A. Conway, D. King, L. Sandrolini, P. Stark, P. Stuckey, and V. Teague. You can do RLAs for IRV
- Blom, M., P. Stuckey, V. Teague, and R. Tidhar. Efficient Computation of Exact IRV Margins
- Blom, M., P. Stuckey, and V. Teague. RAIRE: Risk-Limiting Audits for IRV Elections
- Blom, M., P. Stuckey, V. Teague, and D. Vukcevic. A First Approach to Risk-Limiting Audits for Single Transferable Vote Elections
- Stark, P.B., 2018. An Introduction to Risk-Limiting Audits and Evidence-Based Elections, written testimony prepared for the Little Hoover Commission
- Risk-limiting audit representative group recommendations for CO
- For state-by-state post-election audit laws and analysis, see: NCSL’s risk-limiting audit resource page
Other Helfpul References
- Cordero, A., D. Wagner, and D. Dill. The Role of Dice in Election Audits
- Rivest, R. Consistent Sampling with Replacement